## Resumen

In this paper, we will review two analytical approaches to the construction of non-homogeneous Baryonic condensates in the low-energy limit of QCD in (3+1) dimensions. In both cases, the minimal coupling with the Maxwell (Formula presented.) gauge field can be taken explicitly into account. The first approach (which is related to the generalization of the usual spherical hedgehog ansatz to situations without spherical symmetry at a finite Baryon density) allows for the construction of ordered arrays of Baryonic tubes and layers. When the minimal coupling of the Pions to the (Formula presented.) Maxwell gauge field is taken into account, one can show that the electromagnetic field generated by these inhomogeneous Baryonic condensates is of a force-free type (in which the electric and magnetic components have the same size). Thus, it is natural to wonder whether it is also possible to analytically describe magnetized hadronic condensates (namely, Hadronic distributions generating only a magnetic field). The idea of the second approach is to construct a novel BPS bound in the low-energy limit of QCD using the theory of the Hamilton–Jacobi equation. Such an approach allows us to derive a new topological bound which (unlike the usual one in the Skyrme model in terms of the Baryonic charge) can actually be saturated. The nicest example of this phenomenon is a BPS magnetized Baryonic layer. However, the topological charge appearing naturally in the BPS bound is a non-linear function of the Baryonic charge. Such an approach allows us to derive important physical quantities (which would be very difficult to compute with other methods), such as how much one should increase the magnetic flux in order to increase the Baryonic charge by one unit. The novel results of this work include an analysis of the extension of the Hamilton–Jacobi approach to the case in which Skyrme coupling is not negligible. We also discuss some relevant properties of the Dirac operator for quarks coupled to magnetized BPS layers.

Idioma original | Inglés |
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Número de artículo | 518 |

Publicación | Symmetry |

Volumen | 16 |

N.º | 5 |

DOI | |

Estado | Publicada - 2024 |

### Nota bibliográfica

Publisher Copyright:© 2024 by the authors.

## Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus

- Física y astronomía (miscelánea)
- fisica altas energias
- QCD
- solitones
- Informática (miscelánea)
- Química (miscelánea)
- Matemáticas General
- Matemáticas (todo)