Compassion Questionnaires: Scales Development and Validation

Bassam Khoury*, Rodrigo C. Vergara, Christina Spinelli

*Autor correspondiente de este trabajo

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

1 Cita (Scopus)


Purpose: Previous compassion scales measured correlates or consequences of compassion, included mindfulness in their definition and do not fully operationalize the affective, cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal skills involved in cultivating compassion. The proposed Compassion Questionnaires towards Self (CQS) and Others (CQO) aim to operationalize compassion towards self and others by grounding them in affective, cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal dimensions with each representing a set of skills that can be cultivated through training and practice. Methods: Based on the proposed theoretical approach, the CQS and CQO items were developed through consultations with a panel of eight graduate students and a group of ten experts in the field. A series of three studies were conducted to validate the questionnaires and test their clinical utility. Results: Results from the three studies suggested the merging of the affective and cognitive dimensions, yielding three independent dimensions for both the CQS and CQO. These findings were additionally supported by convergent and discriminant evidence. In addition, results suggested that CQS and CQO subscales’ scores are moderately associated with mindfulness measures and are sensitive to mindfulness training or meditation practice and experience. Conclusions. The CQS and CQO are the first questionnaires that operationalize compassion towards self and others as sets of affective, cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal skills/abilities that are independent from mindfulness, and they have important theoretical and practical implications. Limitations as well as theoretical and practical implications of the CQS and CQO are thoroughly discussed.

Idioma originalInglés
Páginas (desde-hasta)1006-1032
Número de páginas27
PublicaciónCognitive Therapy and Research
EstadoPublicada - 2023

Nota bibliográfica

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus

  • Psicología experimental y cognitiva
  • Psicología clínica


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